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What is infertility?

Infertility is inability of a couple of a childbearing age to conceive a baby while having regular unprotected sexual intercourse.

What is artificial insemination (intrauterine artificial insemination)?

Intrauterine artificial insemination, or artificial insemination of a woman is an injection of sperm with the help of a special catheter into the uterine cavity.
Artificial insemination is prescribed in cases of certain forms of male and female endocrine and immunological infertility. An obligatory requirement for this procedure is normal fallopian tube patency. On a day favourable for getting pregnant (in a natural cycle or with hormonal stimulation of ovulation), preliminarily prepared partner’s or donor’s sperm is injected into the female patient’s uterine cavity by means of a catheter.

What is IVF?

IVF (in vitro fertilization, fertilization outside the body, fertilization in a tube) is a method of treatment for infertility in which fertilization of female oocytes by male sperm cells occurs outside her body. After fertilization, the embryos obtained are transferred into the cavity of the female uterus, and the woman carries a pregnancy.

What is ICSI?

ICSI is a sperm injection into the cytoplasm of the egg cell during IVF. The injection is performed by special micromanipulators. Using this micromanipulation, fertilization occurs. If as a result of a disease the sperm cell loses its ability to get inside the egg because its dense outer shell becomes an invisible obstacle for it, there is a need to apply the ICSI method.

What is IMSI?

IMSI is selection of the sperm cells from ejaculate at a very high magnification for conduction of ICSI.

What are TESA and MESA?

Both manipulations are used in cases of azoospermia — absence of sperm cells in ejaculate. TESA and MESA are options of ICSI programs. The difference lies in the “source” of the sperm cells: in TESA, sperm cells necessary for injection into the egg are retrieved when puncturing testes, and MESA — puncturing epididymes.

How is the hormonal function of the ovaries detected?

Ultrasonic monitoring of folliculogenesis, as well as hormonal monitoring are the most informative ovarian hormonal function examinations.

How to prepare oneself for sperm collection?

Under the influence of alcohol, nicotine, unhealthy diet (spicy and fatty foods), overfatigue and stress semen quality deteriorates significantly. Therefore, for best results of the spermogram, impact of the above factors should be eliminated or minimized. An obligatory requirement before semen collection is the sexual abstinence, as well as avoidance of hot baths and saunas for 3 days.

Is it necessary to check patency of fallopian tubes before IVF?

No. The processes of fertilization, which naturally takes place in fallopian tubes of the female body, in case of IVF is performed in special boxes and incubators. IVF programs were originally developed for women with removed or blocked fallopian tubes.

When is the donor’s sperm used?

Sperm donation is used in cases of absolute male infertility or for single women.

When are donor’s eggs used?

In some females ovary follicles growth and maturation of oocytes do not occur. In this case, oocytes are obtained from a female donor and are fertilized with the sperm of partner’s or donor’s sperm. Obtained embryos are transferred into the patient’s uterus, and she carries the pregnancy.

What is PGD?

Preimplantaion Genetic Diagnosis is a general name for various genetic tests designed to test cells of embryos for various genetic and chromosomal abnormalities.

What is PGT-A?

Preimplantation Genetic Testing for Aneuploidy (PGT-A) is a method used to identify aneuploid embryos in conjunction with an In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) cycle. PGT-A is currently the only way to determine if an embryo contains the normal number of chromosomes prior to pregnancy. PGT-A reduces the chance of failed implantation or an early miscarriage, or of having a child with a chromosome abnormality, and increases the chances of a healthy pregnancy after an IVF cycle. Besides, it permits identifying the sex of the future baby.

What is Family Balancing?

PGT-A is offered for the purpose of family balancing, by testing the sex chromosomes of an embryo. Male embryos will have an X and Y chromosome, while female embryos will have two X chromosomes. This technology is also used to test for additional chromosomal abnormalities, to increase the chances of having a successful pregnancy and healthy baby.

What is AMH?

AMH (Anti-Mullerian Hormone) is one of the markers of the reproductive system of a female body that is directly connected to the ovarian reserve and ability of the ovary to produce eggs. The lower AMH is, the fewer oocytes the ovary produces.

Does AMH depend on the age?

Yes. With age, the level of AMH gradually decreases, especially after 40.

Is it possible to increase AMH?

Unfortunately, in current conditions it in impossible to substantially influence the level of AMH. At very low rates of this marker, programs using the donor’s oocytes can be offered as well.

What is surrogacy/ surrogate motherhood?

The surrogacy program gives infertile couples a chance of becoming parents in case the woman has no uterus or has serious diseases in which carrying of the pregnancy is contraindicated. In these cases, when conducting IVF, the egg and sperm of the infertile couple (biological parents) are used. The embryos obtained are transferred into the uterine cavity of the “surrogate mother”. She carries this pregnancy and gives birth to a baby she has no biological relation to.

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