Treatment for Female Factor Infertility
Woman’s desire of being a mother is vital. However, according to statistics pregnancy unfortunately does not occur after numerous attempts in 14% of families. Frequently (but not always) the cause is hidden particularly in woman’s health. The female infertility factor is diagnosed after 12 months of active but unsuccessful attempts to conceive. Despite popular presumption, female infertility factor is not connected with heredity, painful menstruations or irregular sex. Сauses of female infertility are hidden in other factors.
Main causes of female infertility are:
- Pathology of the uterus. There are a lot of forms of such pathologies which prevent conceiving and carrying of a pregnancy – intrauterine septum, myoma, endometritis, polyposis and others.
- Absence of fallopian tubes or tubal obstruction. The former condition can occur as a result of fallopian tubes resection for the reason of extra-uterine pregnancy or inflammatory and purulent process in them. Blocking is a result of adhesive processes after inflammation.
- Adhesive processes which prevent movement of the oocyte inside the uterine. Peritoneal factor of infertility.
- Disruption of hormonal balance which can lead to the modifying of ovulation mechanism
- Endometriosis – excessive proliferation of endometrium.
- Immunological causes – sperm cells antibodies in the woman’s organism.
- Psychological factors. Anxiety, unwillingness to have a baby or stress can lead to female infertility factor.
Depending on the reasons, which led to incapability to conceive, several types of female infertility factor can be mentioned:
Tubal peritoneal infertility. Diagnosis of such type of infertility can be done on the basis of disclosure of abnormalities in fallopian tubes formation and functioning, adhesive process in the small pelvis. In most cases tubal and peritoneal factors are allied, therefore it is considered as a single type of female infertility. The causes of such type of infertility are deficiency of female hormones or abundance of male hormones, continuous course of endometriosis, surgeries on the pelvic organs, inflammation of ovaries or fallopian tubes and other reasons.
Uterine infertility. It is characterized with anatomical defects of uterus regardless if these pathologies are inborn or allochthonic. Inborn pathologies are bigeminy, excalation of the uterus or septum presence inside it. Allochthonic pathologies can occur as a result of endometritis, uterine myoma or surgical interference in this reproductive organ. Such type of female infertility can be characterized with absence of emmenia (secondary amenorrhea). In most cases adhesions which appear inside the uterus prevent pregnancy.
Endocrinous infertility. This type is connected with hormonal factors and appear to be the most frequent. There are three forms of endocrinous infertility:
- Anovulatory infertility is connected with absence of ovulation (there is no egg release from an ovary).
- Insufficiency of luteal phase. This form of endocrinous infertility is connected with unavailability of endometrium for embryo implantation. Fertilization can occur, but for the reason of incapability of embryo implantation, pregnancy is terminated.
- Luteinized Unruptured Follicle Syndrome. In case of such a form, egg is perished because the yellow body is formed before ovulation occurs. The reason of such a condition is disorder in the secretion of progesterone hormone.
The reasons of endocrinous female infertility are disorders in functioning of ovaries or hypophysis, insufficiency of thyroid hormones and adrenal hyperplasia.
Methods of infertility treatment.
Medicine allows fighting with female infertility successfully, although it does not guaranty recovery to every woman. For the moment, many different types of infertility treatment procedures are applied. Main methods of female infertility treatment are:
Hormonotherapy. This treatment is prescribed in cases endocrinous infertility. It consists of medication aimed at improvement of the endocrine system functioning. Hormonotherapy can also be applied for the stimulation of ovulation, which can lead to a multiple pregnancy. As a result of correctly matched hormonal medications, infertility treatment is conducted successfully – ovulation occurs in 85% of cases.
Artificial insemination can only be applied in case of normal patency of fallopian tubes because fertilization of eggs occurs inside the tube just like in natural conception. Such a reproductive technology consists of injecting semen (previously obtained) inside the woman’s uterus by a fertility specialist. This method is applied in case of immunological causes of infertility – presence of antibodies to sperm cells. Artificial insemination can be conducted with the application of husband’s sperm or donor’s sperm.
In vitro fertilization (IVF). The most widespread reproductive technology. It is applied in case of fallopian tubes or ovaries absence, endometriosis, some diseases and uterine pathologies. In IVF eggs are fertilized in a laboratory, not inside the female organism. The fertility specialist prescribes special hormonotherapy in order to stimulate ovulation and to obtain several eggs. Mature eggs (after ultrasound investigation results) are retrieved from an ovary through puncture, thereafter they are placed in a special culture media where prepared sperm cells are added to them for fertilization. Fertilized cells cultivate for 3-5 days under the control of an embryologist in special incubator. When the embryologist decides that embryos are ready, they are transferred to the uterus. Within 14 days after the transfer, the woman has a test for HGC concentration in blood, which indicates pregnancy. Such a method of infertility treatment became widespread due to high effectiveness – approximately 50% of women carry a child successfully after the IVF manipulation. Pregnancy after IVF does not differ from naturally conceived pregnancy.
Laparoscopy. In some cases, a surgery to reverse pathology of the uterus or fallopian tubes is necessary for pregnancy occurrence. If surgical interference is required for female infertility treatment, a minimally invasive laparoscopic method is used because it is less traumatic for the organism. Laparoscopy is successfully applied for resection of adhesions, cysts, polyps, tubal obstruction and in other cases.
In many cases, female infertility can be treated successfully. For this reason, in case of problems with natural conception it is necessary to visit a doctor for professional help.
After a range of laboratory and diagnostic female fertility tests, the fertility doctor will prescribe one of infertility treatment methods suitable for every specific case.